Kimya Mühendisliği

BioSolveIT FTrees v2.0.2


BioSolveIT FTrees v2.0.2 | 7MB | RS,ES

FTrees has been reported to be highly successful in numerous projects by various customers in :

1. lead finding,
2. HTS analysis, and
3. general virtual screening applications.

[Devamini Okuyun…]



Türk Mühendis Ve Mimar Odaları Birliği Kimya Mühendisleri Odası Serbest Kimya Mühendisliği Hizmetleri Uygulama, Tescil, Denetim Ve Belgelendirme Yönetmeliği

Türk Mühendis ve Mimar Odaları Birliği Kimya Mühendisleri Odasından:

Resmi Gazete Tarihi : 18/11/2008

Resmi Gazete Sayısı : 27058

BİRİNCİ BÖLÜM: Amaç, Kapsam, Dayanak ve Tanımlar


Madde 1 – (1) Bu Yönetmeliğin amacı; kişi ve kuruluşlar tarafından gerçekleştirilen kimya mühendisliği ve danışmanlık hizmetlerinin belirlenerek denetlenmesini, bilimsel, teknik ve mesleki esaslar dahilinde ülke ve toplum yararları yönünde gelişmesini, ülkemizde geçerli standartlara uygunluğunu, meslek içi haksız rekabetin ortadan kaldırılmasını, mesleki değerlendirmeye esas sicillerin tutulmasını sağlamak amacıyla yapılacak belgelendirme ve denetimlerin usul ve esaslarını düzenlemektir.


Madde 2 – (1) Bu Yönetmelik, serbest kimya mühendisliği hizmetlerini veren ve mesleki ürünleri üreten, bu hizmetleri yapan, uygulayan gerçek veya tüzel kişileri kapsar.


Madde 3 – (1) Bu Yönetmelik, 27/1/1954 tarihli ve 6235 sayılı Türk Mühendis ve Mimar Odaları Birliği Kanununun 39 uncu maddesine dayanılarak hazırlanmıştır.

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Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids, a Fluid Physics Experiment Conducted on Mir, Complete

The Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids (GMSF) is an international experiment facilitated by the NASA Glenn Research Center and under the guidance of U.S. principal investor Professor Hegseth of the University of New Orleans and three French coinvestigators: Daniel Beysens, Yves Garrabos, and Carole Chabot. The GMSF experiments were concluded in early 1999 on the Russian space station Mir. The experiments spanned the three science themes of near-critical phase separation rates, interface dynamics in near-critical boiling, and measurement of the spectrum of density fluctuation length scales very close to the critical point. The fluids used were pure CO2 or SF6. Three of the five thermostats used could adjust the sample volume with the scheduled crew time. Such a volume adjustment enabled variable sample densities around the critical density as well as pressure steps (as distinct from the usual temperature steps) applied to the sample.

[Devamini Okuyun…]

Diffusivity Measurements Made Instant and Easy

A compact common path interferometer (CPI) system has been developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. It uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. The molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined from the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and liquid phase properties. When the data obtained by using the CPI have been compared with similar results from other techniques, the instrument has been demonstrated to be far superior to other instruments for measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while staying very compact and robust (ref. 1). Because of its compactness and ease of use, the CPI has been adopted for use in studies of interface dynamics as well as other diffusion-controlled process applications (ref. 2). This progress will permit experiments in microgravity that can quantitatively answer basic science questions about mass and thermal diffusion and their effect in transport processes. This instrument is a spinoff of a diagnostic development for microgravity fluid physics experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center that has used optics and electronics existing in the fluid physics laboratory for feasibility studies.

[Devamini Okuyun…]

How Does a Liquid Wet a Solid? Hydrodynamics of Dynamic Contact Angles

How Does a Liquid Wet a Solid? Hydrodynamics of Dynamic Contact Angles

A contact line is defined at the intersection of a solid surface with the interface between two immiscible fluids. When one fluid displaces another immiscible fluid along a solid surface, the process is called dynamic wetting and a “moving” contact line (one whose position relative to the solid changes in time) often appears. The physics of dynamic wetting controls such natural and industrial processes as spraying of paints and insecticides, dishwashing, film formation and rupture in the eye and in the alveoli, application of coatings, printing, drying and imbibition of fibrous materials, oil recovery from porous rocks, and microfluidics.

Shadowgraph Plot of interface angle versus distance from contact line
Left: Shadowgraph of the static meniscus of silicone oil on Pyrex (Corning, Corning, NY). Field of view is about 600 µm in the horizontal direction. The fluid slightly overfills a Teflon beaker, 10 cm in diameter. A Pyrex tube, 2.54 cm in diameter, is immersed in the fluid. Because of the slight overfill, the meniscus appears above the beaker rim and can, thus, be imaged optically. Right: Static meniscus of silicone oil on Pyrex: The angle between the solid and the interface tangent is shown versus the distance from the contact line from image analysis of the picture in the first figure. The slope extrapolates to a static contact angle, ~4°, at the contact line. The solid line shows the best fit of the static capillary theory. The theory’s only adjustable parameter is the contact angle.

[Devamini Okuyun…]

Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows Through Packed Bed Reactors in Microgravity

The simultaneous flow of gas and liquid through a fixed bed of particles occurs in many unit operations of interest to the designers of space-based as well as terrestrial equipment. Examples include separation columns, gas-liquid reactors, humidification, drying, extraction, and leaching. These operations are critical to a wide variety of industries such as petroleum, pharmaceutical, mining, biological, and chemical. NASA recognizes that similar operations will need to be performed in space and on planetary bodies such as Mars if we are to achieve our goals of human exploration and the development of space. The goal of this research is to understand how to apply our current understanding of two-phase fluid flow through fixed-bed reactors to zero- or partial-gravity environments.

Previous experiments by NASA have shown that reactors designed to work on Earth do not necessarily function in a similar manner in space. Two experiments, the Water Processor Assembly and the Volatile Removal Assembly have encountered difficulties in predicting and controlling the distribution of the phases (a crucial element in the operation of this type of reactor) as well as the overall pressure drop.

To address this problem, the NASA Glenn Research Center has begun an in-house study on the effects of a microgravity environment on gas-liquid flow through a packed bed reactor. The initial study compares an established flow regime map developed by E. Talmor in 1977 (ref. 1) to similar flow conditions under microgravity. The Talmor map uses dimensionless quantities that account for the effects of gravity. In theory, by adjusting the gravity term, this map should also be applicable to reduced gravity.

Researchers Eric Dao (University of Houston) and Brian Motil (Glenn) work on a packed bed reactor experiment on NASA’s KC-135 aircraft.

[Devamini Okuyun…]

Packed bed reactors

The most important characteristic of a PBR is that material flows through the reactor as a plug; they are also called plug flow reactors (PFR). Ideally, all of the substrate stream flows at the same velocity, parallel to the reactor axis with no back -mixing. All material present at any given reactor cross -section has had an identical residence time. The longitudinal position within the PBR is, therefore, proportional to the time spent within the reactor; all product emerging with the same residence time and all substrate molecule having an equal opportunity for reaction. The conversion efficiency of a PBR, with respect to its length, behaves in a manner similar to that of a well -stirred batch reactor with respect to its reaction time (Figure 5.2(b)) Each volume element behaves as a batch reactor as it passes through the PBR. Any required degree of reaction may be achieved by use of an idea PBR of suitable length.

The flow rate (F) is equivalent to VolS/t for a batch reactor. Therefore equation (5.5) may be converted to represent an ideal PBR, given the assumption, not often realised in practice, that there are no diffusion limitations:

Vmax/F = [S]0X - Km Ln(1-X) (5.6)

[Devamini Okuyun…]

Packed bed

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Super-Raschig rings

Structured packing

In chemical processing, a packed bed is a hollow tube, pipe, or other vessel that is filled with a packing material. The packing can be randomly filled with small objects like Raschig rings or else it can be a specifically designed structured packing.

The purpose of a packed bed is typically to improve contact between two phases in a chemical or similar process. Packed beds can be used in a chemical reactor, a distillation process, or a scrubber, but packed beds have also been used to store heat in chemical plants. In this case, hot gases are allowed to escape through a vessel that is packed with a refractory material until the packing is hot. Air or other cool gas is then fed back to the plant through the hot bed, thereby pre-heating the air or gas feed.

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Fortran 90 for the Fortran 77 Programmer

* Technical information
* Preface
* Introduction
* Chapters
o 1. Notables in the transition from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90
o 2. Specifications
o 3. The layout of a program (free form and fix form)
o 4. Format
o 5. The same source code for Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 ?
o 6. Control statements
o 7. Program units
o 8. Keyword arguments and default arguments
o 9. Recursion
o 10. Generic routines
o 11. The use of arrays and array sections
o 12. Pointers
o 13. The new precision concept
o 14. Additional problems at the transition
o 15. Use of program libraries
o 16. Peculiarities in the language Fortran 90
o 17. Status of Fortran 95
o 18. Different Fortran standards

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Electrical Safety in Flammable Gas/Vapor Laden Atmospheres

W.O.E. Korver, W.O.E. Korver, “Electrical Safety in Flammable Gas/Vapor Laden Atmospheres”
Noyes Publications | 2001-02-15 | ISBN: 0815514492 | 450 pages | PDF | 5.4 MB

This book provides comprehensive coverage of electrical system installation within areas where flammable gases and liquids are handled and processed. The accurate hazard evaluation of flammability risks associated with chemical and petrochemical locations is critical in determining the point at which the costs of electrical equipment and installation is balanced with explosion safety requirements. The book offers the most current code requirements along with tables and illustrations as analytic tools.

Environmental characteristics are covered in Section 1 along with recommended electrical installation and safety recommendations. Section 2 treats a number of application illustrations in detail. Section 3 presents examples for the application of classifying NEC Class 1 locations.

Key Features:

– An in-depth treatment of factors that influence the classification of hazardous locations

– Recommendations for required electrical safety measures in controlling injuries and property damage in workplace and process areas

– Comprehensive coverage of factors in achieving economic electrical installation while providing recommended safety levels for personnel and equipment

– Contains 126 tables and illustrations guiding the reader about characterizing the explosion properties of flammable liquids, vapors, and gases that are processed, stored, handled and transported

[Devamini Okuyun…]